A workforce gap is expected in the next 10 to 15 years as the generation retires. According to a U.S. Census Bureau report, the baby boomers began turning 65 in 2011 and are now driving growth at the older ages of the population. By 2029, when all the baby boomers will be 65 years and over, more than 20% of the total U.S. population will be over the age of 65.
Education will be even more essential in maintaining and growing the international milling industry, as it looks to fill this workforce gap. While learning opportunities are available at trade shows and conferences, it’s hard to duplicate the hands-on learning available at facilities designed specifically for intense training.
In this article,
Photo courtesy of IAOM.
The International Association of Operative Millers (IAOM) offers a Correspondence Course in Flour Milling as well as several resident milling courses, most of which are offered in cooperation with Bühler and Kansas State University, and Ocrim.
The Correspondence Course is comprised of eight units, each one delving into many milling topics from beginning lessons on the wheat kernel to advanced chapters such as pneumatics and plant management. Every unit contains several lessons and a test is available for each lesson.
For the first time this year, the course is available in Arabic and Spanish. The previous five-unit Correspondence Course had been available in Spanish, but now all eight units are available in both languages.
|Melinda Farris, executive vice-president of the IAOM|
“We are constantly revising and updating the Correspondence Course lessons and the new Fundamentals of Milling textbook to stay current with current issues,” said Melinda Farris, executive vice-president of the IAOM.
Milling technician certificate. A new offering from the IAOM and Cowley College is the Milling Technician Certificate Program, an online college-accredited vocational program that is faster and cheaper compared to other programs, and open to people with no milling experience.
With two semesters of coursework and an internship at a flour mill, the one-year program prepares students for positions as trained technicians working in a flour mill. It was introduced to the industry in August 2016.
|Tom Sargent, director of professional development|
“To the best of our knowledge, it is the only one-year college program certificate in the world that’s college degree granting,” said Tom Sargent, director of professional development. “There are some excellent training programs out there worldwide, no question about that. But this program is that niche between no training at all and a bachelor’s degree.”
The certificate program is a combination of mechatronics and milling courses that include basic math needed for the mill environment, as well as an overview of equipment, electronics and electricity and pneumatic fundamentals. Throughout the courses students are introduced to the milling process, wheat characteristics, the industry and various requirements of the gradual reduction process in making wheat flour. Quality assessments are an integral part of the studies. To wrap-up the program, students complete a 250-hour paid internship at a commercial flour mill to test the skills and knowledge they learned through the online courses.
Standard college enrollment requirements apply to those wishing to enter the program. High school seniors may enter the program as long as they have reached age 18 by the time the internship commences.
Eligibility requirements for the internship include:
- Earn a high school diploma or GED prior to the internship;
- Be at least 18 years old at the time of internship;
- Satisfy all employment requirements at selected internship site.
At the completion of the program, graduates have the potential for full-time employment in a recession-proof field with an estimated starting salary of up to $45,000, according to IAOM.
Sargent said one of biggest challenges the program overcame is helping potential employees understand that a vocational skill can be taught or learned in an online learning environment. Specific hands-on activities have been created that the students can participate in at home.
He noted the lab exercises simulate mill experiences, concepts and activities, machinery functions and product quality, using readily available products and items found around the home.
The program is geared toward those who have no milling experience or industry knowledge. But the program’s current students are ones who have been involved in the industry for a few years.
“Our current students are people who are in the industry and want to enhance their skills and knowledge,” Farris said. “The idea is to expand our talent pool by marketing to high school seniors about the broad career opportunities the milling industry has to offer.”
The IAOM sees the program as a possible stepping stone to potential students who may not want to commit to a four-year college.
“The students we have now started as sweepers or packers and have spent numerous years in the mills and have continued to work their way up but eventually they get to a point where they are unable to advance without that formalized education that milling companies need,” Sargent said.
The first two graduates completed the program in August; by the end of summer 2018, IAOM expects to have 15 graduates.
Tuition for the program may be covered by the state of Kansas through the Career and Technical Education Act. For qualifying students who participate in the certificate program, the state of Kansas will cover tuition. Qualified juniors and seniors in public, private and homeschool high schools are encouraged to gain the training needed to enter a profession and earn an industry-recognized credential.
Photo courtesy of AMS.
African Milling School
The African Milling School (AMS), located in Nairobi, Kenya, offers comprehensive and intensive training in the milling industry with a focus on theoretical and practical training. A part of the Bühler group, AMS offers a Miller’s Apprenticeship program, the Advanced Milling Course for Head Millers and short courses for experts on mechanical and electrical maintenance, baking technology and feed milling.
The AMS has classroom space, a fully equipped school mill and a laboratory for quality analysis. It also is equipped with color sorters for wheat and maize (corn) cleaning. Theoretical lessons and practical exercises on the fluting (corrugating) machine in the adjacent workshop of the Bühler service center is available.
The goal of the AMS is to offer professional training for the next generation of millers, and to expand the knowledge base of experienced millers. The aim is to ensure millers come to understand the technology and equipment used to process grain into high value finished products.
Apprenticeship. The apprenticeship program combines vocational school at the AMS with work experience in the industrial mill. It is a two-year program with three modules of four weeks schooling at the AMS each year.
The apprentices must be an employee of a flour milling company and gain work experience in all plant sections, including intake and storage; cleaning; milling; finished production section and packing; and quality control. They must have at least one year of milling experience prior to the program.
Regular exams will take place and the successful trainee will pass to the second year of apprenticeship. After the second year of apprenticeship, the successful candidate will be a miller graduate.
Head miller. This course consists of two modules of three weeks each, and focuses on mill operations, milling efficiency and flour quality. It is a combination of lectures and hands-on training. The state-of-the-art school mill allows practical training on wheat and maize milling. There is a fully equipped lab that will allow the participants to learn about quality control from grain to flour.
It is available to experienced millers, shift millers assigned a supervisor/head miller position, and AMS graduate millers after at least one year of work experience.
Regular exams will take place for each topic and module. A ranking system of 0 to 100 points will be applied. An average of 50 points (no topic below 40 points) must be achieved to get the diploma of Head Miller AMS.
Expert courses. The AMS also offers expert courses in mechanical and electrical maintenance, baking technology and feed milling. They include theoretical and practical skills in operation and maintenance as well as quality control; training by Bühler experts; and certificate of attendance. The courses are offered throughout the year. For a schedule, visit www.africanmillingschool.com/
Grain Milling Training Center
The Grain Milling Training Center of Bühler in Uzwil, Switzerland, offers a wide range of courses from beginner to expert and executive level. The diverse list of courses cover various fields of activities such as traditional flour milling, maize milling, oat processing, a combination of flour milling and baking, mechanical and electrical maintenance as well as plant automation.
The courses are constantly updated with the latest technology available on the market. This year, the center started offering a specific SORTEX course for grain milling.
Courses are offered in five different languages.
“Being able to train people from around the world in German, English, French, Spanish and Italian in one central location is unique in the industry,” said Tobias Nänny, manager of the Grain Milling Training Center. “We offer all our courses with simultaneous translation into any language that might be required. In addition, we are holding a similar range of training courses in our own Grain Milling Training Center in Wuxi, China.”
Personnel and food safety are topics that have occupied the industry for many years, which is reflected in training sessions where long discussions on the topics often occur.
In its executive training sessions, resource management and cost of production are important topics.
“Mill owners and their top management level want to know how they can produce in the most cost effective and efficient way, with the least downtime,” Nänny said. “At the same time production stability and the final product quality cannot be compromised. This directly leads us back to the pure technology courses in which the personnel are challenged to master production stability and quality by the means of ideal machine settings and the choice of raw material. The understanding and application of the same cannot be gained on a piece of paper but only in front of the actual machines. Students want detailed practical sessions in our trainings. The Grain Milling Training Center becomes their playground for the hands-on experience where no idea is too crazy to be tried.”
Equipment updates. The school mill has been equipped with a new electrical installation that allows the center to train personnel on the highest level of electrical installations possible in the milling industry.
The grain cleaning section of the school mill has a new optical sorter SORTEX A1, and the training center hall has an additional optical sorter SORTEX A3 combined with a tubular push conveyor TUBO in a closed cycle.
“This allows us to run both machines on a continuous basis for as much time as we want,” Nänny said. “Students are now able to run both machines for prolonged practical sessions and experience various settings of the optical sorter SORTEX.”
Photos courtesy of Cigi.
The Canadian International Grains Institute (Cigi) is an independent not-for-profit market development institute in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Cigi works with the grain value chain throughout Canada and internationally to increase the use of Canadian grain, with a specific focus on wheat and pulses. One of the ways Cigi does this is through the delivery of targeted training involving current and potential customers of Canadian grain from key markets.
Since 1972 more than 45,000 people from 115 countries have participated in Cigi programs and seminars.
Cigi holds customized technical exchanges for small groups from specific regions or companies, international programs for representatives from a number of countries, and overseas seminars. Participation in most of Cigi’s programs is by invitation only. The group works with industry representatives, including provincial wheat commissions and grain companies to determine priority markets. Various market criteria are used as the basis for invitations to participate in Cigi programs, such as representation from the largest wheat customers, recommendations from exporters that could include potential customers from emerging markets and information from Cigi staff who work closely with customers worldwide.
Cigi’s technical facilities feature a pilot flour mill, pilot and test bakeries, a pilot noodle plant, a pilot pasta and extrusion plant, a pulse processing facility, and an analytical services lab. Program participants spend time in each of these facilities learning how to optimize the milling and application of Canadian grain in a range of end products. Another feature of Cigi’s programs is the opportunity to meet and learn from organizations and individuals throughout the Canadian grain industry who, along with Cigi staff, share their expertise through presentations, practical demonstrations and facility tours.
Cigi offers an open enrollment Canadian Grain Industry Overview Course targeting Canadian participants involved in the grain business. It covers the roles of government regulators, industry associations, grain companies, transportation companies, producers, and the interrelationships between each.
Customer requests. Coupled with continuing interest in Canada Western Red Spring Wheat (CWRS) and Canada Western Amber Durum (CWAD), participants are looking to learn more about different Canadian wheat classes such as Canada Prairie Spring Red (CPSR) and Canada Western Red Winter (CWRW). Cigi’s research and evaluation on these classes has shown they have potential in various product applications, providing staff an opportunity to share this information. Interest also is being expressed in Canada Northern Hard Red (CNHR) wheat, a new milling class established last year, and Cigi staff are beginning to evaluate its milling and flour properties and end-product applications in order to present this information during programs as appropriate.
The Canadian industry also is interested in learning more about customers’ needs and how Canadian grain is used in different markets. The aforementioned Canadian Grain Industry Overview Course and Combine to Customer programs for growers help provide the Canadian industry with information that Cigi staff have gleaned from customer contacts.
The use of pulses (grain legumes) as food ingredients to enhance nutritional levels in processed foods has steadily drawn industry interest from food processors and pulse growers. For many years, Cigi has researched how milling affects the quality of pulse flour and end-product quality. Pulse flour has been blended with wheat flour in baked goods, noodles and pasta, or processed on its own in extruded snack and breakfast products for evaluation. Projects often have involved working with commercial processors and food research centers on pulse processing and product development using yellow peas, beans, lentils and chickpeas. This work has been highlighted in Cigi programs to meet the growing interest in the health benefits and potential end-use applications of pulses. As well, Cigi has hosted pulse industry and customer seminars and presented its findings at international workshops and conferences.
In addition, Cigi has been working in partnership with the Institut de Formation de l’industrie Meunière (IFIM) in Morocco on a five-year project funded by the government of Canada (Global Affairs Canada) to provide vocational training, information, technical expertise and applied research services to their durum wheat and pulse sector using a train-the-trainer approach. A few times each year students chosen by IFIM also come to Cigi for technical training in milling durum, pulses and laboratory analysis. The project runs to December 2018.
Equipment updates. Cigi updated and added new equipment to many of its technical facilities during the past two years. This equipment supports Cigi’s applied research work and is used during technical demonstrations with program participants. The addition of more than 20 pieces of equipment, supported by funding from the governments of Canada and Manitoba, has enhanced Cigi’s capabilities in the milling, baking, noodle, pasta, pulse and analytical services facilities.
Some specific examples include:
- Alveolab – This latest version of the alveograph measures the resistance of dough to extension and its extensibility; both properties provide an indication of the quality or strength of gluten.
- Ferkar Mill – A one-stage mill suitable for the milling of pulses and other crops that is efficient, simple to use, and improves the reproducibility of test and processing results.
- Mixolab2 – Assesses the properties of dough during mixing, and is used to measure the protein and starch quality of wheat and pulse flours.
- NIRS for flour mill – A rapid way to measure the quality of wheat, flour and/or semolina quality, providing information on moisture, protein, ash and other quality parameters typically in less than one minute. This allows for rapid adjustments to milling parameters to optimize and monitor flour/semolina quality.
- Rondo Sheeter – This sheeter is used to sheet dough in the production of pastries, rolls, pizza crusts and other sweet baked goods.
The International Grains Program (IGP), which was created in 1978, utilizes technical training and assistance programs to educate international flour and feed millers, grain buyers, overseas government officials and other public and private-sector parties involved in grain procurement and use. The IGP Institute is in Manhattan, Kansas, U.S., and is part of the Department of Grain Science and Industry at Kansas State University (KSU).
Through the Department of Grain Science and Industry, more than 250 students enroll annually in academic programs to pursue undergraduate degrees in milling, bakery and feed science and management, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in grain science. Demand for graduates continues to grow as career opportunities in the grain-based food and feed industry are projected to remain plentiful during the coming decades in response to the challenge of feeding a global population of more than 9 billion by 2050.
In addition, the department can offer minors via distance to students in the process of receiving a degree from an accredited university and graduates of accredited programs. The courses are converted to a format compatible with distance delivery, contributing to the flexibility of the program.
The department offers the full spectrum of educational opportunities in the grain science industry. Students can enroll in academic programs and industry professional can enroll in continuing education programs through the IGP Institute. More information on the institute is available at www.grains.k-state.edu/igp/.
IGP Institute. IGP Institute provides and utilizes technical training and assistance programs to educate international flour and feed millers, grain buyers, overseas government officials, and other public and private-sector parties involved in grain procurement. The IGP Conference Center is one of four buildings that make up the KSU Grain Science and Industry Complex. Other facilities in the 16-acre complex include the Bioprocessing and Industrial Value-Added Program building, completed in spring 2004; the Hal Ross Flour Mill completed in October 2006; and the O.H. Kruse Feed Technology Innovation Center, completed in August 2013.
IGP Institute’s core curriculum offers programs in feed manufacturing and grain quality management, grain marketing and risk management, and grain processing and flour milling.
“Courses at the IGP Institute are updated with every offering, making them relevant and applicable to the industry,” said Brandi Miller, IGP Institute associate director and online education and professional development coordinator. “There is an exciting balance between industry-experienced faculty and experts, and pure academic scholars at the university. This balance provides a great mix of scientific aspects and industry knowledge and experience within the department and in the courses offered through the IGP Institute.”
The industry is constantly stressing human and food safety. In response, IGP Institute partnered with the National Grain and Feed Association (NGFA) to offer industry courses focused on the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). These trainings, offered throughout the year, are recognized as one way to meet the requirements to be a Preventive Controls Qualified Individual as required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
There is also a strong interest in market development and how to become involved in emerging markets in the industry. Personnel, traceability and sustainability are all desired topics addressed to back up food safety industry training, Miller said.
New offerings. This winter, IGP Institute is offering the IGP-KSU Pet Food Formulation for Commercial Production training, scheduled Jan. 8-12. It will focus on ingredients, processes and the software necessary to create new products, revise existing formulas and perform business and production analysis.
IGP Institute also has developed a workshop and forum discussing opportunities for market development through the creation of containerized programs.
“There has been a strong interest from local state producer groups for more technical training for the industry,” Miller said.
The September workshop and forum were free to attend and discussed topics including the Kansas rail and container transportation systems; container logistics; export documents and counter party risk; non-vessel operating common carriers; and Union Pacific and Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway transportation overviews and the future outlook.
Distance education and credentials. Professionals in grain handling operations and processing as well as related fields can advance their careers, improve their job skills and help their employers by earning formal credentials. The GEAPS/Kansas State University Credentialing Program offers logical, structured ways to continue learning, and leads to real-world application, achievement and recognition.
Credentials are offered in: Grain Operations Management and Grain Processing Management. There are also specialist credentials in key areas of grain operations management.
Through its partnerships with GEAPS and the American Feed Industry Association (AFIA), the IGP Institute offers distance education training courses in the areas of grain operations management, grain processing management and feed manufacturing. Through these partnerships, educational content has been provided to almost 3,000 industry professionals around the world. All materials are developed by academic and industry experts and are formally peer-reviewed by industry professionals during development.
The addition of the “HOT” (hands-on training) program through GEAPS/KSU distance education will expand the breadth of course offerings within the distance education and credentialing program. Prior to the two-and-a-half day hands-on portion of the course, offered Dec. 12-14, participants will complete three hour-long online modules on safety, lubrication and the development and implementation of comprehensive preventative maintenance programs.
While at KSU’s Hal Ross Flour Mill, students will then work directly on bucket elevators, distributors, screw conveyors, bin sweeps, chain conveyors and belt conveyors.
More information on the course is available at www.geaps.com/education/hands-on-training-hot/about-the-training.
Photo courtesy of nabim.
Since its formation in 1878, the National Association of British and Irish Millers (nabim) has been committed to the development of skilled millers and has placed a high priority on milling training. For more than 100 years, nabim has been at the forefront of technical education in flour milling, first within the U.K. and Ireland, and since the mid-20th century, across the world.
The association’s seven module distance learning program has been offered annually for many years. Textbooks are updated on a rolling basis to keep the material relevant. Students may study the modules in any order and combination. They are assigned a tutor who will market and comment on their coursework during the year.
Each module has a written examination at the end of the course. After successful completion of all seven modules, they receive the nabim Advanced Certificate.
Once every three years, in conjunction with Campden BRI and Bühler Training Center, they offer U.K. millers an Advanced Milling Diploma program in three units. The first two units, technical and operations, involve residential weeks at nabim partners’ training facilities. The third unit is a research project approved by their employers and assessed independently.
In addition, nabim offers two or more 1- to 3-day events every year aimed at health and safety issues, technical education or more general management development.
“Our member companies want nabim to concentrate on milling-specific training that is unlikely to be provided for the industry from outside,” said Nigel Bennett, nabim secretary. “As members of an aging workforce retire, a prime concern is to help companies train new recruits to the industry, both young and not too young, so as to maintain skills levels and the degree of knowledge and understanding of the milling process from wheat to distribution.”
With the U.K. government’s introduction of an apprenticeship levy on all companies and the availability of funds for apprenticeship training, nabim is considering whether a processing-specific apprenticeship might be developed, Bennett said.
“This work is ongoing and a main concern is to ensure that decisions are made on the basis of what students derive from the training rather on pure cost and/or political measures of what constitutes training,” he said.
Virtual mill. Over the last 18 months, nabim has built a virtual mill site including, so far, training rooms for the plansifter and purifier. Students in the coming session of the distance learning program will have the opportunity to visit the mill for tutor-led sessions aimed at supporting their studies. The intention is that the virtual mill will, before too long, become the hub of all nabim’s training resources.
Nabim also has developed an e-learning DVD that explains what is going on inside the closed milling process. The four training films, available on one DVD, were created using video, demonstration and animation on various aspects of the milling process.
Photo courtesy of Ocrim.
Ocrim S.p.A. organizes a variety of educational courses for the milling industry at its Milling Training Center in Cremona, Italy. Ocrim first started educating the milling industry at a facility outside Cremona in 1965. More than 2,800 students have been trained to become chief millers, laboratory analysts and maintenance foremen. The courses attract students from across the world.
The school offers a wide range of courses, including mechanical, electrical maintenance, automation and a specific course for millers and the laboratory. The courses are continuously updated on consideration of new technologies and new market demands, Ocrim said.
Subjects vary and go from the simple maintenance of a machine to the solution for more difficult questions related to the sustainability/source management inside the milling complex. This ranges from sanitation, personnel and food safety, and products traceability.
Tailor-made courses are available and dedicated to the customers’ requirements along with what they want to learn or what issues they want to cover more in-depth.
Ocrim said it is always looking for new ideas to improve its efficiency and the benefits it can give customers. The company works to maintain a high-quality standard for the machinery it uses for the practice of the students, in the school mill, the lab and the didactic programs.
More information on Ocrim’s courses is available at www.ocrim.com.
Northern Crop Institute (NCI)
The Northern Crops Institute (NCI) started in 1979 as a collaborative effort among the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana to promote, develop, and market crops grown in the four-state region. The NCI is now an international meeting and learning center that unites customers, commodity traders, technical experts, and professors for discussion and education. Since 1983, over 133 nations have sent participants to the NCI who are government representatives, private industry agriculture workers, or from other commodity utilization industries.
While it is not a degree-granting institution, the NCI provides customized professional training and technical support to those in the food and feed industry. It continually updates its professional training and technical support to meet the current needs of customers around the world.
The NCI’s mission is to support regional agriculture and value-added processing by conducting educational and technical programs that expand and maintain domestic and international markets for northern-grown crops.
It provides many different types of demonstrations and hands-on learning for course participants, including flour milling (durum, spring wheat, other grains), flour performance (bread, cakes, cookies), soy performance (tofu, soymilk), extrusion (precooked pasta, snacks), full fat soy extrusion and feed manufacturing.
New offerings. In response to customer requests for courses that cover risk management, food safety, product quality and ingredient functionality, the NCI has added new course offerings.
During the NCI-INTSOY course, soy food professionals from around the world gain hands-on experience and practical knowledge of soybeans. The NCI is the new host of the former NSRL-INTSOY, previously held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The newly revitalized course, now named NCI-INTSOY, teaches practical processing methods and innovative applications of soybean ingredients in meat, beverages, baking, snacks, traditional soy foods and animal feed products.
The NCI also offers two courses related to the Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA) – Human Food Preventive Control and Animal Food Preventive Control. Both are designed for industry professionals with the responsibility for developing and implementing a company’s food and feed safety plans as they related to FSMA.
The courses are suitable for those working in any area of the facility (quality, sanitation, operations, logistics, maintenance, etc.), where food or feed safety plans are to be used in operations or where knowledge of the rule will be helpful (sales, marketing, upper management).
The NCI is in the process of developing courses on high oleic soy and extruded soymeal and emerging markets.
Grain and pasta. The NCI’s grain procurement and pasta manufacturing courses attract the most stable enrollments. They have both been offered annually since the NCI opened in 1983.
The Grain Procurement Management for Importers course has been one of the institute’s flagship courses, and it continues to evolve as industry dictates. It teaches professionals how to extract and analyze information, and then make decisions with respect to risk management.
A portion of the course is taught at North Dakota State University’s Commodity Trading Room. The high-technology room has live information feeds for financial information, including equities and credit, plus commodity market information such as agriculture energy and biofuels.
Pasta courses at the NCI are custom tailored to meet the needs of those attending the course. The NCI is one of a very few educational institutions that offers “hands-on” education in pasta. The Pasta Production and Technology course and other pasta courses at the NCI have had a long history and continually evolve. Current trends in this industry have been utilizing additional crops (with or without wheat) to improve the quality and/or health features of pasta.
SWISS SCHOOL OF MILLING (SMS)
Since 1957, when the Swiss School of Milling (SMS) was founded, the main focus has been teaching students in milling. This means they are trained in theory as well as in practice. More than 1,600 students finished the school and are now working in management positions. Since the school mill is within Bühler’s Training Center in Uzwil, the lecturers are able to teach their students on the newest machines and technologies on the market.
As a private school, certified by an external body (ISO 29990), the school is prepared to keep the high-quality level of teaching. The school in St. Gallen, Switzerland, is the one of the only schools in Europe with a strong focus on practical milling. People attending the school want to learn everything about milling, how to improve and optimize the processes in a mill and what is necessary to keep a strong, sustainable performance.
Quality assurance and food safety is part of the timetable as well. The school’s course is divided into a six-month correspondence course and a six-month main course. The correspondence course is done at home and covers the basic knowledge that is required for optimal preparation for the main course. Students can acquire the knowledge in individual subject groups at home while still working. The necessary materials will be sent to them by the school.
Students must reply to questions in the various subject areas. The answers will be rated and included in the final rating. The time required for the correspondence course is about 6 to 10 hours a week, depending on a student’s prior knowledge.
The six-month course is held at the school in St. Gallen. Knowledge of the individual subjects is deepened and expanded. During the main course, four practice afternoons will be held weekly to support and to link classroom work. They include practical workshops in milling, laboratory, electro techniques, pneumatic, aspiration and baking. These workshops are flanked by case studies and exercises.
Upon successful completion of the course, students will be awarded a diploma certifying them as “Milling Technologist SMS.”
More information on SMS is available at http://www.sms-sg.ch.