The Ferkar mill, used to produce whole grain flours in one step for stone-ground flour, was introduced to North America in 1995 by Jaymark, a division of B.D.I. Canada Inc., St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada. Lower temperature milling and, unique cutting action results in less starch damage for more elastic baked goods. Uniform particle sizing also enhances baking results. Ferkar mills replace hammer mills for spice milling, mill screenings and bran reduction, and consume a fraction of the energy without need of air filters, cyclones, air locks, fans or blowers — saving as much as 200 hp over hammer mill systems. Recent applications include reduction of corn meal to "cones," pasta regrind, semolina, soya nut, oat bran, barley and chick pea flour — in one step without the need of sifters. The perforated screens can be changed in 5 minutes and wear-resistant knives last up to five years.