Country Focus Data: Turkey
November 01, 1999
by Mindy Dake
The capital of Turykey is Ankara.
Demography: Population 65.6 million, 1.57% growth rate (1999 estimates); Turkish language, Muslim religion.
Geography: Strategic location bridging Europe and Asia; mostly mountainous terrain, with interior central plateau; temperate climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters; harsher interior conditions.
Government: Republican parliamentary democracy. Chief of state is President Suleyman Demirel, head of government is Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit.
Official agricultural agencies: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. The Turkish Grain Board (T.M.O.), an agency within the Ministry, buys and sells some grain and sets import levies.
Economy: Market. Turkey's economy is a dynamic blend of modern industry and commerce and traditional village agriculture and crafts. The private sector is strong and growing rapidly. For much of the decade, Turkey has instituted market reforms, but high inflation has hampered more robust growth. In 1998, agriculture accounted for 14.4% of gross domestic product and employed 42.5% of the work force.
G.D.P. per capita: U.S.$6,600 (purchasing power parity); 2.8% growth rate; 70% inflation; 10% unemployment (all 1998 estimates).
Currency: Turkish lira. October 9, 1999 exchange rate: 468,300 lira per U.S. dollar.
Exports: U.S.$31 billion (f.o.b., 1998), textiles and apparel, foodstuffs.
Imports: U.S.$47 billion (f.o.b., 1998), machinery and equipment.
Major crops/agricultural products: Wheat, barley, maize, cotton.
Wheat: Five-year production has averaged 16.5 million tonnes. Imports have averaged 1.8 million, with exports averaging 1.6 million. Total use has expanded annually, and should reach an estimated 17.3 million in 1999-00. Turkey also produces durum, with production averaging about 2.3 million tonnes annually.
Coarse grains: Annual production has been about 10 million tonnes in the past three seasons. Total use averages about 10.5 million tonnes, with imports averaging 900,000 and exports 650,000.
Transportation: Rail, 10,386 km, all 1.435-m gauge; highways, 382,397 km, 95,599 paved; major ports, Mersin, Yarimca, Istanbul, Ismir.