Country Focus Data: Egypt
January 01, 1997
by Mindy Dake
In northern Africa, the Arab Republic of Egypt's capital is Cairo.
Demography: Population 62.4 million, 1.95% growth rate, 45% urban; Arabic (official), English, French languages; Muslim religion.
Geography: Desert climate and terrain, except for fertile Nile River valley and delta.
Government: Republic. Chief of state is President Hosni Mubarak, head of government is Prime Minister Kamal Ahmed Al-Ganzouri.
Official agricultural agencies: Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Ministry of Supply and Trade.
Economy: Mixed, with 50% of Gross Domestic Product originating in the public sector. The agriculture sector currently accounts for 16.5% of G.D.P. and about 36% of total employment.
G.D.P. per capita: U.S.$2,490 (1994 estimate), growth rate 4.7% (fiscal year 1994-95 estimate), inflation rate 8.4% (1995).
Currency: Egyptian pound. January 1997 exchange rate: 3.39 Egyptian pounds per U.S. dollar.
Exports: U.S.$3.1 billion (f.o.b. 1993-94), cotton, crude oil, textiles; primary partners, E.U., Japan, U.S.
Imports: U.S.$11.2 billion (c.i.f. 1993-94), machinery, fertilizers, grains and foods, durable consumer goods; primary partners, E.U., Japan, U.S.
Major agricultural crops/products: Cotton, rice, maize, wheat, fruits and vegetables, livestock.
Wheat: At more than 180 kilograms per capita, wheat consumption in Egypt is one of the highest in the world.
Five-year wheat production averaged 4.8 million tonnes in a range of 4.1 million to 5.4 million. Consumption continues to expand each year; five-year use averaged 10.6 million tonnes, and 1996-97 use is projected at about 11.2 million.
Coarse grains: Maize is Egypt's primary coarse grain, with white maize accounting for the majority of production. Maize production in the past five years averaged 5.3 million tonnes in a range of 4.5 million to 5.8 million. Use has expanded from 6.2 million tonnes in 1992-93 to a projected 8.7 million in 1996-97.
Transportation: Railroads, 4,895 km, mostly 1,435-m gauge; 47,387 km of highways, with 34,593 km paved; major ports are Alexandria, Damietta, Port Said, Suez.