1995 World Grain and Feed Review

by Teresa Acklin
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   Each year since 1989, World Grain has published a summary of world trade activity in cereal and feed grains. Last year, the review was expanded to provide more information, including statistics on world grain production, use, stocks and price trends.

   Traditional features include the trade tables and maps indicating major grain exporters and importers of wheat, wheat flour, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum and rice. Marketing years were selected for the completeness of available statistics.

   The review also contains maps of activity in 1994 at the world's major grain ports and the annual update on world flour production.

   Other features begin on page 26 with the 1994-95 grain year at a glance. These tables highlight key supply and demand figures for the most recent marketing year. Five year trends offer a longer-term summary of supply and demand statistics for each commodity, followed by charts illustrating world price trends for wheat, maize and soybeans.

World grain trade activity 1993-94

      World trade totals 1993-94

(1,000 tonnes)
Wheat and flour92,600
Flour only8,223
Maize54,300
Soybeans28,080
Barley17,100
Sorghum6,600
Rice16,340

      WHEAT, WHEAT FLOUR

   (1,000 tonnes)

   Source: I.G.C.

1 — UNITED STATES2 — CANADA
Total: 32,941Total: 18,169
Destinations:Destinations:
Eygpt3,575Korea2,528
Japan3,450U.S.2,356
F.S.U.2,364Brazil1,937
Phillipines1,956China1,605
Pakistan1,834Japan1,403
Other19,762Other8,340
3 — E.U.4 — AUSTRALIA5 — ARGENTINA
Total: 9,205Total: 12,771Total: 4,493
Destinations:Destinations:Destinations
Algeria1,049Iran2,380Brazil3,098
F.S.U.826Korea1,437Indonesia462
Egypt668Eygpt1,313Peru368
Morocco589Japan1,125Chile231
Libya583Indonesia1,090Bolivia210
Other5,490Other5,426Other124

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

F.S.U.6,300
Japan6,000
Egypt5,900
Korea5,900
Brazil5,800

      MAIZE

   (1,000 tonnes)

   Source: U.S.D.A.

1 — UNITED STATES2 — CHINA3 — ARGENTINA
Total: 33,730Total: 11,780Total: 4,200
Destinations:`Destinations: Destinations:
Japan11,923South Korea5,212Brazil1,009
Taiwan4,955Japan1,909Peru587
Russia2,259Malaysia1,663E.U.555
Mexico1,678Indonesia926Japan387
Eygpt1,437Russia497Taiwan312
Other11,478Other1,573Other1,350

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

Japan16,170
E.U.10,620
South Korea5,940
Taiwan5,310
Russia2,770

      FLOUR

   (1,000 tonnes wheat equivalent)

   Source: I.G.C.

1 — E.U.2 — UNITED STATES
Total: 5,033Total: 1,230
Destinations:Destinations:
Algeria632Yemen334
Libya489Egypt249
Syria474Haiti150
Yemen450Peru55
Egypt371Somalia25
Other2,617Other417
3 — TURKEY4 — JAPAN5 — CANADA
Total: 590Total: 423Total: 275
Destinations:Destinations:Destinations:
Iraq166Hong Kong269United States134
Libya100Vietnam58Vietnam31
Georgia59Singapore40Syria26
Other265Thailand40Other84
Other16

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

Yemen807
Algeria681
Egypt623
Libya588
Syria530

      SOYBEANS

   (1,000 tonnes)

   Source: U.S.D.A., Oil World

1 — UNITED STATES2 — BRAZIL*3 — ARGENTINA*
Total: 16,032Total: 5,490Total: 3,054
Destinations:Destinations:Destinations:
E.U.5,835E.U.3,866E.U.1,680
Japan3,660Japan833Taiwan463
Taiwan1,828Korea218Mexico338
Mexico1,686Other578Other573
South Korea998
Other2,025

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

E.U.13,111
Japan4,855
Taiwan2,500
Mexico2,496
South Korea1,160

      BARLEY

   (1,000 tonnes)

   Source: U.S.D.A.

1 — E.U.3 — AUSTRALIA
Total: 5,720Total: 4,275
Destinations:Destinations:
Saudi Arabia2,303Saudi Arabia1,400
Libya854China860
Romania694Japan650
Algeria301Taiwan391
Czech Republic269United Arab Emi.140
Other1,299Other834
2 — CANADA4 — UNITED STATES
Total: 3,789Total: 1,437
Destinations:Destinations:
United States2,027Israel400
Japan1,068Saudia Arabia350
Saudi Arabia302Algeria309
China276Jordan201
Taiwan53Cyprus99
Other63Other78

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

Saudi Arabia4,300
Eastern Europe1,700
Japan1,600
China1,100
Libya900

      SORGHUM

   (1,000 tonnes)

   Source: U.S.D.A.

1 — UNITED STATES2 — ARGENTINA
Total: 5,498Total: 426
Destinations:Destinations:
Mexico3,089Japan380
Japan1,683Chile32
E.U.174Peru9
Ethiopia83Brazil5
Israel66
Other403

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

Mexico3,100
Japan2,850
E.U.605
Ethiopia100

      RICE

   (1,000 tonnes milled rice)

   Source: U.S.D.A.

1 — THAILAND2 — UNITED STATES
Total: 4,740Total: 2,520
Destinations:Destinations:
Indonesia558Japan481
Japan536E.U.408
China523Brazil282
South Africa289Mexico207
United States244Saudia Arabia176
Other2,590Other966
3 — VIETNAM4 — CHINA
Total: 2,000Total: 1,520
Destinations:Destinations:
Not available atJapan1,079
presstime.Togo91
Bulgaria50
Hong Kong39
Mauritius37
Other224

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

Japan2,623
E.U.1,388
Indonesia950
Saudi Arabia869
China700

World wheat flour production

   (1982-92) by regions and countries* (1,000 tonnes wheat equivalent)

   *From 1991, Czech Republic only. Source for tables on pages 22-26: International GrainsCouncil, London *Based on information supplied by member and non-member countries, United Nations Statistical Yearbook and I.G.C. estimates derived from reports of production and trade

199219911990198919881987198619851984198319821981
WESTERN EUROPE
Austria447464453372368362360361356353356368
E.U.
Belgium1,1481,1281,0681,010896932851938908797909966
Denmark271282257244250260264268259246246244
France5,6025,6965,3455,2525,2664,9364,8374,9004,6694,0064,6964,741
Germany3,1393,0702,6172,4292,4432,3392,3842,5192,4332,2802,4802,601
Greece8008002,0592,0992,104927861885
Ireland179179138136159166156169172213226
Italy4,8804,7804,6404,5734,5304,5404,5904,5004,4404,3704,5104,783
Luxembourg4042415941423844414039
Netherlands1,2331,1511,1351,1131,0451,0489081,0161,0669651,0111,021
Portugal519487570599596609603580618583580585
Spain2,2402,2402,4002,4362,4722,5082,5442,5812,6172,6302,6372,643
United Kingdom3,8453,8443,8793,9283,9983,8744,0613,6473,6083,4263,5043,596
Finland246219213220219224226230225220226231
Malta39303535353622232221
Norway255258246255288290285279280284274331
Sweden539580577526468466454455448458449438
Switzerland362352368362356356356355352343338338
(former) Yugoslavia8881,1302,3212,2022,2772,3182,3422,3372,4052,4422,331 EASTERN EUROPE
Albania313352342338331317311220220220
Belarus3,0133,0912,9273,0592,9432,8472,9142,7802,680
Bulgaria1,0041,2061,3661,3171,3441,2621,3831,3741,2461,2991,3341,344
*Czechoslovakia8795591,1181,4051,4251,3841,3551,3351,3061,2961,3391,315
East Germany680931941937918924920889941919
Hungary8791,1611,2181,1201,1641,1841,1721,1651,1661,1821,2181,203
Poland1,6651,8151,8072,8932,8982,7262,4882,1772,9352,5152,8102,772
Romania2,4582,5702,6222,6422,8612,6772,6182,6182,2002,7002,200
Former Soviet Union32,84231,88632,22733,14033,10634,546
Russian Federation20,49720,71319,94820,14620,83121,07522,54022,94923,292
Ukraine6,7947,6717,8147,5347,7847,8207,5677,3327,344
199219911990198919881987198619851984198319821981
NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA
Canada1,6051,6231,6401,6521,7281,6711,7461,7201,6951,7261,6221,651
Costa Rica90889087856566907580
Cuba398442454443442422428386354
Dominican Republic174163138126161150141139108127117100
El Salvador12612412412011211010110397898080
Guadeloupe (French)38373634333337
Guatemala163149147154148137136139122113106111
Haiti92142132111139104110
Honduras10710710283837875684115814265
Jamaica17218816114612713713913186625545
Mexico2,4822,4892,5092,4862,3832,2572,1262,3672,4592,3912,3292,286
Nicaragua43475545
Panama7168695952504847
United States16,82116,43416,31315,54815,61115,49314,80214,23513,60014,13313,19612,881
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina3,0663,1122,9722,8822,7512,4702,8562,8992,8522,7712,6442,456
Bolivia36736235797152127142172205136234
Brazil5,1105,4754,7204,7944,5404,6254,680
Chile1,2441,2291,2051,1231,1201,1101,0799999959959981,011
Colombia463448510479473379520376350353
Ecuador313329323326278250250230
Guyana3231834
Paraguay5967127108105115108999010097101
Peru481598824891873694784761766775
Uruguay164153200260242243
Venezuela710610890790710800600600550
199219911990198919881987198619851984198319821981
ASIA
Near East
Cyprus647572677267536261595756
Iran6,4205,9405,4242,9092,5942,5182,5255,5005,404
Iraq5555,7651,8501,7901,622
Israel521480492478467518497472461
Jordan420420588336333329447378240155
Kuwait105153147142143149235176210200
Lebanon190270290
Saudi Arabia650455346
Syria1,2511,2531,1711,1611,2211,0161,1611,1611,116970859632
Turkey1,3881,3461,3641,6371,6161,5281,4591,4911,4811,5821,4801,424
Yemen247215208160137128
Far East
Bangladesh2,3792,2281,748
China58,50056,00052,000
Hong Kong1101148091878383889611094
India4,8004,7714,7324,7014,3603,4274,2824,3072,7352,7482,5652,481
Indonesia9441,2851,0321,1821,0318581,1371,2131,0771,012
Japan4,3634,3724,3384,5824,5584,4994,5244,4254,4454,3564,3694,184
South Korea1,4661,4581,5121,6141,6921,6131,5961,6121,5471,4761,4441,439
Malaysia602587539514500441370355357344332314
Mongolia200196194186176185150120125
Myanmar (Burma)555550
Pakistan11,17010,87710,4329,7269,354
Philippines746746789672525702650692630
Singapore90130200
Sri Lanka571534472474509483463415400386320
Taiwan635629622619620619572520513499495459
Thailand156118827486115117109
Vietnam220270250
199219911990198919881987198619851984198319821981
AFRICA
Algeria1,2411,2141,2361,1851,1351,0471,0241,030944818746
Angola32255040507550
Cameroon4922255273595345
Central African Republic141
Chad3111
Congo16103898
Cote d'Ivoire163129145140
Egypt3,5103,3923,5323,6293,6753,7063,7373,5793,6923,6483,4873,537
Ethiopia177201195181195181134160164160
Gabon313029262327282423211916
Ghana98108889571634540182573
Kenya222186172189267260304285222272267217
Libya135176132
Mauritius685537
Morocco2,0551,7691,8321,6331,6832,0591,7291,9192,0471,8831,6041,798
Mozambique59418776895672748295110
Nigeria793528445268131,3351,197
Senegal87866587897086
South Africa1,7781,7411,7781,7541,7111,6501,6091,5991,6031,4761,4981,506
Sudan450466343280266276255257
Tanzania16312213022545053692726
Tunisia610572553542534513517498462463419403
Uganda131412978548
Zaire147134131101117123121
Zambia485861603957809584
Zimbabwe187160150150
OCEANIA
Australia1,2821,2141,2271,2781,2661,2181,1731,1741,1751,0871,0861,069
Fiji25282626252422232120
New Zealand290290210214216219225220209227229

1994-95 world grain year at a glance

   in million hectares and million tonnes

WHEAT
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks127.0Food use408.0Ending stocks104.0
Production528.0Feed use100.0
Total 654.0Other42.0Wheat area214.9
Total550.0Yield (tonnes per ha)2.43
Source: International Grains Council; U.S.D.A.

MAIZE
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks72.3Feed377.1Ending stocks87.6
Production555.1Other162.7
Total627.4Total539.8Maize area132.4
Yield (tonnes per ha)4.19
Source: U.S.D.A.

SOYBEANS
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks17.3Crush108.5Ending stocks24.2
Production137.6Other22.2
Total154.9Total130.7Soybean area62.4
Yield (tonnes per ha)2.21
Source: U.S.D.A.

RICE (milled)
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks49.8All uses361.0Ending stocks49.3
Production360.5
Total410.3Rice area145.3
Yield (tonnes per ha)2.48
Source: U.S.D.A.

BARLEY
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks31.7All uses166.6Ending stocks26.0
Production160.9
Total192.6Barley area73.1
Yield (tonnes per ha)2.20
Source: U.S.D.A.

SORGHUM
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks4.1All uses55.8Ending stocks5.1
Production56.8
Total60.9Sorghum area38.7
Yield (tonnes per ha) 1.47
Source: U.S.D.A.

   totals may not add because of rounding.

Five-year trends: world grain

      WHEAT

TRADE (in million tonnes wheat equivalent)
Percent
YearWheatFlourTotalchange
1990-9183.27.790.9
1991-92100.08.2108.2+19.1
1992-9397.38.1105.4-3.1
1993-9484.48.292.6-12.1
1994-9586.67.994.5+2.1
Note: beginning in 1991-92, wheat and total figures include durum, semolina trade.
DISAPPEARANCE (in million tonnes)
YearFoodFeedOtherTotal
1990-91372.3135.161.9569.3
1991-92381.3120.755.7557.7
1992-93385.2102.663.4551.2
1993-94395.0106.060.0561.0
1994-95408.0100.042.0550.0
PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)
EndingExport
YearProductionstocksprice*
1990-91543.2140.7118
1991-92560.7126.4150
1992-93561.4135.9143
1993-94558.2127.0143
1994-95527.5104.0157
*Source: International Wheat Council (average price quote for U.S. No. 2 hard red wheat, f.o.b. U.S. gulf)
Source: International Wheat Council

      RICE (milled)

TRADE (in million tonnes)
WorldPercent
Yeartotalchange
1990-9112.1-
1991-9214.1+16.5
1992-9314.8+5.0
1993-9416.3+10.1
1994-9519.6+20.0
TOTAL USE (in million tonnes)
YearUse
1990-91345.9
1991-92356.0
1992-93354.1
1993-94356.8
1994-95361.0
PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)
EndingExport
YearProductionstocksprice*
1990-91350.759.2296
1991-92352.355.6287
1992-93352.554.0244
1993-94352.449.8294
1994-95360.549.3275
*Thailand milled rice, 100% 2nd grade, f.o.b. Bangkok
Source: U.S.D.A.

      MAIZE

TRADE (in million tonnes)
WorldPercent
Yeartotalchange
1990-9159.1-
1991-9262.6+5.9
1992-9362.0-1.0
1993-9454.3-12.0
1994-9572.3+33.0
FEED USE (in million tonnes)
YearFeed
1990-91315.9
1991-92337.1
1992-93346.9
1993-94340.1
1994-95377.1
PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)
EndingExport
YearProductionstocksprice*
1990-91477.979.9107
1991-92486.980.9110
1992-93532.8104.898
1993-94471.072.3116
1994-95555.187.6105
*Source: I.G.C.(average price quote for U.S. No. 3 yellow maize, f.o.b. U.S. Gulf)
Source: U.S.D.A.

      BARLEY

TRADE (in million tonnes)
WorldPercent
Yeartotalchange
1990-9118.6-
1991-9218.6-
1992-9315.0-19.4
1993-9417.1+14.0
1994-9518.9+10.5
TOTAL USE (in million tonnes)
YearUse
1990-91174.6
1991-92168.0
1992-93162.2
1993-94170.1
1994-95166.6
PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)
EndingExport
YearProductionstocksprice*
1990-91178.032.394
1991-92169.133.399
1992-93165.736.8101
1993-94169.831.794
1994-95160.926.0n/a
*Source: I.G.C. (average price quote for E.U. [French] barley, f.o.b. Rouen)
Source: U.S.D.A.

      SOYBEANS

TRADE (in million tonnes)
WorldPercent
totalchange
1990-9125.4-
1991-9228.5+12.2
1992-9329.6+3.4
1993-9428.1-5.1
1994-9532.6+16.0
CRUSH (in million tonnes)
YearCrush
1990-9187.3
1991-9292.2
1992-9396.2
1993-94101.3
1994-95108.5
PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)
EndingImport
YearProductionstocksprice*
1990-91104.1420.5244
1991-92107.418.4239
1992-93116.920.2236
1993-94117.317.3268
1994-95137.624.2241
*Source: International Wheat Council (average price quote for U.S. No. 2 soybeans, c.i.f. Rotterdam)
Source: U.S.D.A.

      SORGHUM

TRADE (in million tonnes)
WorldPercent
Yeartotalchange
1990-917.8-
1991-929.4+20.5
1992-938.7-7.5
1993-946.6-24.1
1994-956.0-9.1
TOTAL USE (in million tonnes)
YearUse
1990-9155.6
1991-9253.3
1992-9360.9
1993-9458.7
1994-9555.8
PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)
EndingExport
YearProductionstocksprice*
1990-9153.07.6104
1991-9251.65.9110
1992-9364.69.796
1993-9453.44.1109
1994-9556.85.1n/a
*Source: I.G.C. (average price quote for U.S. sorghum, f.o.b. U.S. gulf)
Source: U.S.D.A.

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