1994 World Grain and Feed Review

by Teresa Acklin
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   Each year, since 1989, World Grain has published a summary of world trade activity in cereal and feed grains. This year, the Review has been expanded to provide more information, including statistics on world grain production, use, stocks and price trends.

   Traditional features include the trade tables and maps indicating major grain exporters and importers of wheat, wheat flour, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum and rice.

   Marketing years were selected for the completeness of available statistics.

   As in the past, the Review also contains maps of activity in 1993 at the world's major grain ports and the annual update on world flour production.

   New features begin on page 28 with the 1993-94 grain year at a glance. These tables highlight key supply and demand figures for the most recent marketing year. Five year trends offer a longer-term summary of supply and demand statistics for each commodity, followed by charts illustrating world price trends for wheat, maize and soybeans.

World grain trade activity 1992-93

      WHEAT, WHEAT FLOUR

   (1,000 tonnes)

   Source: I.W.C.

1 — UNITED STATES2 — CANADA
Total: 37,148Total: 21,582
Destinations:Destinations:
F.S.U.5,421China3,946
Egypt4,081F.S.U.2,717
Japan3,378Korea1,771
China2,117Japan1,493
Morocco1,849U.S.1,453
Other20,302Other10,202
3 — E.U.4 — AUSTRALIA5 — ARGENTINA
Total: 21,002Total: 9,526Total: 7,322
Destinations:Destinations:Destinations
F.S.U.8,443Iran1,104Brazil4,527
Romania1,204Egypt1,088Peru672
Egypt961India1,050Indonesia459
Algeria955Japan1,041Turkey405
Morocco933Korea749F.S.U.235
Other8,506Other4,494Other1,024

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

F.S.U.19,110
China6,750
Egypt6,192
Japan5,911
Brazil5,826

      MAIZE

   (1,000 tonnes)

   Source: U.S.D.A.

1 — UNITED STATES2 — CHINA3 — ARGENTINA
Total: 41,776Total: 11,883Total: 4,779
Destinations:`Destinations: Destinations:
Japan14,235South Korea5,480Brazil1,097
Taiwan5,450Japan2,102 E.U.732
Russia2,858Malaysia1,528 Peru463
South Africa1,923Russia1,381 Venezuela349
E.U.1,317Iran573Japan322
Other15,993Other819Other1,816

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

Japan16,760
South Korea6,544
Taiwan5,629
Russia4,250
South Africa2,101

      FLOUR

   (1,000 tonnes wheat equivalent)

   Source: I.W.C.

1 — E.U.2 — UNITED STATES
Total: 4,893Total: 1,499
Destinations:Destinations:
Syria610Egypt456
Egypt609Yemen310
Libya587Haiti223
F.S.U.287F.S.U.85
Yemen208Cameroon52
Other2,592Other373
3 — TURKEY4 — JAPAN5 — ARGENTINA
Total: 523Total: 432Total: 245
Destinations:Destinations:Destinations:
Iraq303Hong Kong268Bolivia126
F.S.U.135Vietnam58Peru23
Libya50Singapore46Chile20
Other35Thailand42Other76
Other18

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

Egypt1,084
Libya637
Syria619
Yemen525
F.S.U.507

      SOYBEANS

   (1,000 tonnes)

   Source: U.S.D.A., Oil World

1 — UNITED STATES2 — BRAZIL*3 — ARGENTINA*
Total: 20,944Total: 4,183Total: 2,171
Destinations:Destinations:Destinations:
E.U.8,652E.U.3,034E.U.1,516
Japan3,922Japan385Mexico142
Taiwan2,344Other764Other513
Mexico1,748
South Korea1,047
Other3,231

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

E.U.14,846
Japan4,866
Taiwan2,391
Mexico2,136
South Korea1,131

      BARLEY

   (1,000 tonnes)

   Source: U.S.D.A.

1 — E.U.3 — AUSTRALIA
Total: 5,750Total: 2,177
Destinations:Destinations:
Saudi Arabia1,424Japan602
Russia741China461
Poland609Saudi Arabia318
Libya595Taiwan213
Romania372Iran174
Other2,009Other409
2 — CANADA4 — UNITED STATES
Total: 2,859Total: 1,611
Destinations:Destinations:
Saudi Arabia1,300Saudia Arabia728
Japan962Israel188
United States194Jordan151
China124Cyprus138
Morocco94Algeria105
Other185Other301

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

Saudi Arabia4,000
Japan1,650
Eastern Europe1,293
Russia1,250
China720

      SORGHUM

   (1,000 tonnes)

   Source: U.S.D.A.

1 — UNITED STATES2 — ARGENTINA
Total: 6,634Total: 1,023
Destinations:Destinations:
Mexico3,951Japan924
Japan1,934Chile43
E.U.193Poland29
Turkey131Brazil14
South Africa63Other13
Other362

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

Mexico3,951
Japan3,067
Turkey411
E.U.373
Israel216

      RICE

   (Calendar year 1992)

   (1,000 tonnes milled rice)

   Source: U.S.D.A.

1 — THAILAND2 — UNITED STATES
Total: 4,780Total: 2,105
Destinations:Destinations:
Iran523E.U.259
F.S.U.422Saudia Arabia209
Indonesia384Turkey181
Hong Kong266Mexico151
Benin258Haiti131
Other2,927Other1,174
3 — VIETNAM4 — PAKISTAN5 — CHINA
Total: 1,914Total: 1,358Total: 953
Destinations:Destinations:Destinations:
Malaysia240Iran189Cuba140
Iraq165Saudia Arabia163Togo110
F.S.U.130Jordan148Libya89
Sri Lanka128U.A.E.141Cote d'Ivoire84
Mexico124Kenya77Guinea79
Other1,127Other640Other451

   TOP IMPORTERS

   (all sources)

Iran811
F.S.U.719
Saudi Arabia530
Indonesia508
Malaysia433

      World trade totals 1992-93

   (1,000 tonnes)

Wheat and flour103,560
Flour only8,141
Maize61,277
Soybeans29,480
Barley14,695
Sorghum8,676
Rice11,634

World wheat flour production

   (1981-91) by regions and countries* (1,000 tonnes)

   Source for tables on pages 22-26: International Wheat Council, London *Based on information supplied by member and non-member countries, United Nations Statistical Yearbook and I.W.C. estimates derived from reports of production and trade

19911990198919881987198619851984198319821981

WESTERN EUROPE
Austria464453372368362360361356353356368
E.U.
Belgium1,1281,0681,010896932851938908797909966
Denmark282257244250260264268259246246244
France5,6965,3455,2525,2664,9364,8374,9004,6694,0064,6964,741
Germany2,6172,4292,4432,3392,3842,5192,4332,2802,4802,601
Greece8002,0592,0992,104927861885
Ireland179138136159166156169172213226
Italy4,7804,5734,5304,5404,5904,5004,4404,3704,5104,783
Luxembourg425941423844414039
Netherlands1,1511,2001,1131,0451,0489081,0161,0669651,0111,021
Portugal487541599596609603580618583580585
Spain2,4002,4362,4722,5082,5442,5812,6172,6302,6372,643
United Kingdom3,8443,8793,9283,9983,8744,0613,6473,6083,4263,5043,596
Finland219213220219224226230225220226231
Malta39303535353622232221
Norway258246255288290285279280284274331
Sweden580577526468466454455448458449438
Switzerland352368362356356356355352343338338
Yugoslavia1,1302,3212,2022,2772,3182,3422,3372,4052,4422,331

EASTERN EUROPE
Albania220220220
Bulgaria1,1471,3661,3171,3441,2621,3831,3741,2461,2991,3341,344
Czechoslovakia1,1071,4181,4051,4251,3841,3551,3351,3061,2961,3391,315
East Germany680931941937918924920889941919
Hungary1,1611,2181,1201,1641,1841,1721,1651,1661,1821,2181,203
Poland1,8151,8072,8932,8982,7262,4882,1772,9352,5152,8102,772
Romania2,2952,5432,6422,8612,6772,6182,6182,2002,7002,200
Former Soviet Union32,84231,88632,22733,14033,10634,546

19911990198919881987198619851984198319821981

NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA
Canada1,6231,6401,6521,7281,6711,7461,7201,6951,7261,6221,651
Costa Rica889087856566907580
Cuba398442454443442422428386354
Dominican Republic163138126161150141139108127117100
El Salvador12412412011211010110397898080
Guadeloupe (French)38373634333337
Guatemala147154148137136139122113106111
Haiti92142132111139104110
Honduras11610283837875684115814265
Jamaica16916114612713713913186625545
Mexico2,4892,5092,4862,3832,2572,1262,3672,4592,3912,3292,286
Nicaragua43475545
Panama68695952504847
Trinidad and Tobago7372
United States16,43416,31315,54815,61115,49314,80214,23513,60014,13313,19612,881

SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina3,1122,9722,8822,7512,4702,8562,8992,8522,7712,6442,456
Bolivia36736235797152127142172205136234
Brazil5,1105,4754,7204,7944,5404,6254,680
Chile1,2291,2051,1231,1201,1101,0799999959959981,011
Colombia510479473379520376350353
Ecuador329323326278250250230
Guyana3231834
Paraguay127108105115108999010097101
Peru481598824891873694784761766775
Uruguay164153200260242243
Venezuela710610890790710800600600550

19911990198919881987198619851984198319821981

ASIA
Near East
Cyprus7572677267536261595756
Iran2,9092,5942,5182,5255,5005,404
Iraq5,7651,8501,7901,622
Israel521480492478467518497472461
Jordan420588336333329447378240155
Kuwait147142143149235176210200
Lebanon190270290
Saudi Arabia650455346
Syria1,2531,1711,1611,2211,0161,1611,1611,116970859632
Turkey1,3621,6371,6161,5281,4591,4911,4811,5821,4801,424
Yemen137128
Far East
Bangladesh2,3792,2281,748
China58,50056,00052,000
Hong Kong1148091878383889611094
India4,7714,7324,7014,3603,4274,2824,3072,7352,7482,5652,481
Indonesia1,0321,1821,0318581,1371,2131,0771,012
Japan4,3724,3384,5824,5584,4994,5244,4254,4454,3564,3694,184
South Korea1,4581,5121,6141,6921,6131,5961,6121,5471,4761,4441,439
Malaysia587539514500441370355357344332314
Mongolia200196194186176185150120125
Myanmar (Burma)555550
Pakistan11,17010,87710,4329,7269,354
Philippines746746789672525702650692630
Singapore90130200
Sri Lanka534472474509483463415400386320
Taiwan622619620619572520513499495459
Thailand156118827486115117109
Vietnam220270250

19911990198919881987198619851984198319821981

AFRICA
Algeria1,2411,2141,2361,1851,1351,0471,0241,030944818746
Angola32255040507550
Cameroon4922255273595345
Central African Republic141
Chad3111
Congo16103898
Cote d'Ivoire163129145140
Egypt3,3923,5323,6293,6753,7063,7373,5793,6923,6483,4873,537
Ethiopia195181195181134160164160
Gabon282423211916
Ghana9571634540182573
Kenya186172189267260304285222272267217
Libya135176132
Morocco1,7691,8321,6331,6832,0591,7291,9192,0471,8831,6041,798
Mozambique895672748295110
Nigeria793528445268131,3351,197
Senegal87866587897086
Sierra Leone258
South Africa1,7411,7781,7541,7111,6501,6091,5991,6031,4761,4981,506
Sudan450466343280266276255257
Tanzania312213022545053692726
Tunisia572553542534513517498462463419403
Uganda131412978548
Zaire147134131101117123121
Zambia485861603957809584
Zimbabwe187160150150

OCEANIA
Australia1,2141,2271,2781,2661,2181,1731,1741,1751,0871,0861,069
Fiji25282626252422232120
New Zealand290290210214216219225220209227229

1993-94 world grain year at a glance

   in million hectares and million tonnes

WHEAT
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks135.0Food use395.0Ending stocks132.0
Production559.0Feed use106.0
Total 694.0Other60.0Wheat area222.4
Total561.0Yield (tonnes per ha)2.52
Source: International Wheat Council; U.S.D.A.

MAIZE
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks104.8All uses503.4Ending stocks69.3
Production467.9
Total572.7Maize area128.9
Yield (tonnes per ha)3.63
Source: U.S.D.A.

SOYBEANS
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks20.3Crush98.8Ending stocks16.9
Production115.5Other20.1
Total135.8Total118.9Soybean area60.2
Yield (tonnes per ha)2.5
Source: U.S.D.A.

RICE (milled)
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks54.0All uses355.2Ending stocks45.3
Production346.5
Total400.5Rice area144.3
Yield (tonnes per ha)3.60
Source: U.S.D.A.

BARLEY
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks36.8All uses168.2Ending stocks37.6
Production169.1
Total205.9Barley area74.2
Yield (tonnes per ha)2.28
Source: U.S.D.A.

SORGHUM
SupplyDemand
Beginning stocks9.7All uses58.7Ending stocks4.4
Production53.4
Total63.1Sorghum area37.9
Yield (tonnes per ha) 1.41
Source: U.S.D.A.

Five-year trends: world grain

      WHEAT

TRADE (in million tonnes wheat equivalent)
Percent
YearWheatFlourTotalchange
1989-9086.86.893.6
1990-9183.27.790.9-3.0
1991-92100.08.2108.2+19.1
1992-9397.38.1105.4-3.1
1993-9485.47.993.3-11.5
Note: beginning in 1991-92, wheat and total figures include durum, semolina trade.
DISAPPEARANCE (in million tonnes)
YearFoodFeedOtherTotal
1989-90369.5104.060.4533.9
1990-91372.3135.161.9569.3
1991-92381.3120.755.7557.7
1992-93385.2102.663.4551.2
1993-94395.0106.060.0561.0
PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)
EndingExport
YearProductionstocksprice*
1989-90592.4117.6162
1990-91543.2140.7118
1991-92560.7126.4150
1992-93555.3135.9143
1993-94559.0132.0143
*Source: International Wheat Council (average price quote for U.S. No. 2 hard red wheat, f.o.b. U.S. gulf)
Source: International Wheat Council

      RICE (milled)

TRADE (in million tonnes)
WorldPercent
Yeartotalchange
1989-9011.3-
1990-9112.1+7.1
1991-9214.1+16.5
1992-9314.8+5.0
1993-9415.5+4.7
TOTAL USE (in million tonnes)
YearUse
1989-90336.5
1990-91345.9
1991-92356.0
1992-93354.1
1993-94355.2
PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)
EndingExport
YearProductionstocksprice*
1989-90343.154.5294
1990-91350.759.2296
1991-92352.355.6287
1992-93352.554.0244
1993-94346.545.3299
*Thailand milled rice, 100% 2nd grade, f.o.b. Bangkok
Source: U.S.D.A.

      MAIZE

TRADE (in million tonnes)
WorldPercent
Yeartotalchange
1989-9074.4-
1990-9159.1-20.6
1991-9262.6+5.9
1992-9362.0-1.0
1993-9455.8-10.0
FEED USE (in million tonnes)
YearFeed
1989-90477.2
1990-91470.6
1991-92486.0
1992-93508.9
1993-94503.4
PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)
EndingExport
YearProductionstocksprice*
1989-90460.572.6111
1990-91477.979.9107
1991-92486.980.9110
1992-93532.8104.898
1993-94467.969.3115
*Source: International Wheat Council (average price quote for U.S. No. 3 yellow maize, f.o.b. U.S. Gulf)
Source: U.S.D.A.

      BARLEY

   TRADE (in million tonnes)

       World   Percent

   Year   total   change

   1989-90   17.7   -

   1990-91   18.6   +5.1

   1991-92   18.6   =

   1992-93   15.0   -19.4

   1993-94   17.3   +15.3

   TOTAL USE (in million tonnes)

   Year   Use

   1989-90   167.4

   1990-91   174.6

   1991-92   168.0

   1992-93   162.2

   1993-94   168.2

   PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS

   
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)

          Ending   Export

   Year   Production   stocks   price*

   1989-90   164.8   28.8   124

   1990-91   178.0   32.3   94

   1991-92   169.1   33.3   99

   1992-93   165.7   36.8   101

   1993-94   169.1   37.6   n/a

   *Source: I.W.C. (average price quote for E.U. [French] barley, f.o.b. Rouen)

   Source: U.S.D.A.

      SOYBEANS

TRADE (in million tonnes)
WorldPercent
totalchange
1989-9027.4-
1990-9125.4-7.3
1991-9228.5+12.2
1992-9329.6+3.4
1993-9427.6-6.8
CRUSH (in million tonnes)
YearCrush
1989-9087.9
1990-9187.3
1991-9292.2
1992-9396.2
1993-9498.8
PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)
EndingImport
YearProductionstocksprice*
1989-90107.420.6246
1990-91104.120.5244
1991-92107.418.4239
1992-93116.920.2236
1993-94115.516.9268
*Source: International Wheat Council (average price quote for U.S. No. 2 soybeans, c.i.f. Rotterdam)
Source: U.S.D.A.

      SORGHUM

TRADE (in million tonnes)
WorldPercent
Yeartotalchange
1989-908.9-
1990-917.8-12.4
1991-929.4+20.5
1992-938.7-7.5
1993-947.0-19.5
TOTAL USE (in million tonnes)
YearUse
1989-9060.9
1990-9155.6
1991-9253.3
1992-9360.9
1993-9458.7
PRODUCTION, ENDING STOCKS
(in million tonnes, U.S. dollars per tonne)
EndingExport
YearProductionstocksprice*
1989-9055.210.2105
1990-9153.07.6104
1991-9251.65.9110
1992-9364.69.796
1993-9453.44.4n/a
*Source: I.W.C. (average price quote for U.S. sorghum, f.o.b. U.S. gulf)
Source: U.S.D.A.

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