Key Facts: Indonesia
November 16, 2010
World Grain Staff
Population: 240,271,522 (July 2010 est.)
Religions: Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census).
Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
Government: Republic. Chief of state and head of government: President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (since Oct. 20, 2004).
Economy: Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has weathered the global financial crisis relatively smoothly because of its heavy reliance on domestic consumption as the driver of economic growth. Although the economy slowed significantly from the 6%-plus growth rate recorded in 2007 and 2008, expanding at 4% in the first half of 2009, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth during the crisis. The government used fiscal stimulus measures and monetary policy to counter the effects of the crisis and offered cash transfers to poor families. In addition, campaign spending in advance of legislative and presidential elections in April and July helped buoy consumption. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President Yudhoyono, introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. Indonesia’s debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption , a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. Yudhoyono’s re-election, with respected economist Boediono as his vice-president, suggests broad continuity of economic policy, although the start of their term has been marred by corruption scandals. The government in 2010 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia’s insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, while addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation needs, particularly with regard to conserving Indonesia’s forests and peatlands.
GDP per capita: $4,000 (2009 est.); Inflation: 4.8% (2009 est.); Unemployment 7.7% (2009 est.).
Currency: Indonesian rupiah (IDR); 8,395 rupiahs equal 1 U.S. dollar (Oct. 18, 2010).
Exports: $119.5 billion (2009 est.): oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber.
Imports: $84.32 billion (2009 est.): machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs.
Major crops/agricultural products: Rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs Agriculture: 15.3% of GDP and 42.1% of the labor force.
Internet: Code. .id; 1.269 million (2010) hosts and 30 million (2008) users.
Source: CIA World Factbook