The capital of Indonesia is Jakarta.
Demography: Population 212.9 million, 1.49% growth rate (1998 estimates); Bahasa Indonesia language; predominantly Muslim religion.
Geography: Southeastern Asia archipelago of 17,000 islands, between Indian and Pacific oceans; mostly coastal lowlands with mountains in interior of larger islands; tropical climate.
Government: Republic. Chief of state and head of government is President B.J. Habibie. Megawati Sukarnoputri won a parliamentary election, although the nature and timing of subsequent governmental changes remained unclear as of early August.
Official agricultural agencies: Ministry of Agriculture under Minister Soleh Solahuddin.
Economy: Market. Once among the foremost of Asia's "economic tigers," Indonesia has confronted chaos since the July 1997 collapse of its currency and regional financial turmoil. Indonesia's economy this year is forecast to recover somewhat. Both gross domestic product and private consumption rates should remain flat following sizable declines in 1998, and inflation should drop to 25% from more than 80%.
G.D.P. per capita: U.S.$4,600 (purchasing power parity); 4% growth rate; 15% unemployment (all 1997 estimates). Currency: Indonesian rupiah. Aug. 11, 1999 exchange rate: 7,493 IDR per U.S. dollar. Exports: U.S.$53.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997), textiles, wood products, electronics. Exports in 1998 are estimated down 8.2%.
Imports: U.S.$41.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997), manufactured goods, raw materials, foodstuffs. Imports in 1998 are estimated down 19.3%.
Major crops/agricultural products: Rice, maize, tropical oils.
Rice: A food staple. Annual production in the 1990s has averaged about 31.5 million tonnes on a milled basis, with imports of 1.8 million tonnes required each year to meet domestic consumption levels. Maize: Annual production averages about 5.8 million tonnes, with imports since 1990 averaging 600,000 tonnes.
Wheat: Indonesia produces no wheat. From 1990 through 1996, imports averaged about 3.2 million tonnes per year.
Transportation: Rail, 6,458 km, mostly 1.067-m gauge; highways, 393,000 km, 178,800 paved; major ports, Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang, Cilacap.